The exemption for anti-competitive agreements is not compliant. However, a dominant undertaking can demonstrate that it has an objective justification for abusive behaviour in other circumstances. For example, several cartel cases have challenged the Rules of the Brokers` Chamber, which limited access to Multiple List Services (MLS) for advertising for the sale of homes. The MLS system of combining the host lists of many brokers has considerable advantages for home buyers and sellers. The initial cases invalidated the affiliate rules of brokers that excluded some MLS brokers because access to MLS was considered the key to home marketing. More recently, the FTC`s enforcement actions have challenged the MLS guidelines, which allow access, while more subtly disapproving of certain types of brokerage agreements that offer consumers a cost-effective alternative to the more traditional full service listing agreement. For example, some brokers offer a limited service model by listing a home in the local MLS for a fee, while other aspects of the sale are passed on to the seller. The FTC has challenged the rules of several mlS organizations that have excluded these brokers from popular home sales sites. These rules limited the way brokers could manage their business and denied home sellers the advantage of having different types of offers. Other agreements may be automatically exempted under a “category exemption” – a category exemption – from which certain agreements within its scope are automatically exempt. Exemptions by different categories may apply depending on the nature of the agreement or the market sector concerned. For example, there are category exemptions for vertical agreements, technology transfer agreements and research and development agreements The Sherman Act of 1890 attempted to prohibit restriction of competition by large companies that worked with competitors to fix outputs, prices and market shares, first through pools , then by the trusts. Trusts appeared in U.S.
railways, where the capital requirements of railway construction excluded competitive services in sparsely populated areas of the time. This confidence has allowed the railways to discriminate against the tariffs and services imposed on consumers and businesses and to destroy their potential competitors. Different trusts could dominate in different sectors. The Standard Oil Company`s confidence in the 1880s controlled several markets, including fuel oil, lead and whisky.  Many citizens have been sufficiently aware and publicly concerned about how trusts have had a negative impact on them, namely that the law has become a priority for both major parties. One of the main concerns of this law is that competitive markets themselves should ensure primary regulation of prices, outputs, interest and profits. Instead, the law prohibited anti-competitive practices and codified general business practices.  Professor Rudolph Peritz argued that competition law has developed in the United States around two sometimes contradictory concepts of competition: first, that of individual freedom, free from state intervention, and second, a fair competitive environment without excessive economic power. Since the passage of the Sherman Act, the application of competition law has been based on various economic theories of government.  Companies involved in anti-competitive behaviour may consider their agreements to be unenforceable and may face fines of up to 10% of the group`s global turnover and possible actions for damages.